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The Changing Scenario in Indian Agriculture: A Review

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Farming is an important and key factor for the economy of developing countries. Since last several years, farmers once again welcomed many traditional farming systems to get crop yield for completion of food requirement. Although, traditional techniques are not much sufficient in new agriculture world because farming is getting new challenges from biotic and abiotic factors. New techniques and systems are getting popularity in present farming because of their important benefits which can solve all challenges on farming. In this review, new farming systems especially organic farming system and genetically modified crop system have been discussed along with traditional farming system in India. The aim of present review is to highlights the benefits of organic farming system and genetically modified crop system over traditional farming. A comparison has also been made between organic and genetically modified crop systems.

Keywords: Abiotic factor, biotic factor, genetically modified crops, organic farming, traditional farming

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2014-p0118-0127

 

Assessment of the Relative Yielding Abilities and Stability of Maize (Zea mays L) Genotypes under Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization across Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Ghana

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Farmers' adoption of hybrid varieties would reduce the large discrepancy between current low yields and achievable yields reported by researchers in yield evaluation trials. This is because hybrids wield superior genetic potential over improved open pollinated varieties (OPVs) and local varieties due their heterozygosity which explains their exhibition of high heterosis in yield and general performance. The current low yield necessitated the need to undertake this study to assess the relative yielding potentials of 3 hybrid varieties, 5 OPVs, 1 local variety and 4 inbred lines under three levels of Nitrogen fertilization in forest and transitional ecological zones in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interactions for genotype by location (G x L), genotype by nitrogen (G x N) and genotype by nitrogen and by location (G x N x L) for grain yield. Averaged across test environments (i.e. location by nitrogen levels), "Mamaba", a Quality Protein Maize (QPM) hybrid recorded the highest mean grain yield of 4.73 t ha-1 whilst the highest yielding OPV, Golden Jubilee, recorded 2.91 t ha-1; 'Entry 5', the highest yielding inbred line however recorded grain yield of 0.72 t ha-1. GGE biplot analysis for mean yield also showed that hybrids had better yielding abilities than OPVs under both low and high nitrogen fertilization and at different environments. In order to bridge the gap between the current low yields and achievable yields in Ghana, farmers would need hybrid seeds together with adequate levels of fertilizers.

Keywords: Hybrids, Genotype, Environment, Nitrogen fertilizer, Heterosis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2014-p0128-0141

 

Liver Histopathology of Chickens Fed With Aluminium Phosphide-Treated Maize-Based Diets

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but residues of synthetic pesticides have adversely affected the environment, livestock and man. However, information on toxic effects of these pesticides on livestock in Nigeria is scanty. Therefore, the study was conducted to assess toxicity of insecticides on chickens. Fourteen -week old Nera black hens (n=60) were allotted into three treatments and fed Aluminium phosphide (AlP)-treated maize-based diets. T1 was the control diet. T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained maize grains fumigated with 1.04 g of AlP tablet per 25 kg of maize grains fumigated for 2 weeks, 2.08 g of AlP tablet per 25 kg of maize grains fumigated for 2 weeks, 1.04 g of AlP tablet per 25 kg of maize grains fumigated for 4 weeks, and 2.08 g of AlP tablet per 25 kg of maize grains fumigated for 4 weeks respectively. Each diet was fed for 10 weeks. The study lasted for ten weeks. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each treatment had three replicates with 20 birds per treatment. Slide preparation and microscopy of the tissues were carried out at the Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Liver histopathology showed mild, moderate and severe congestion of blood vessels.

Keywords: Aluminium phosphide, chickens, maize, liver histopathology, toxicity

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2014-p0142-0147

 

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