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Determination of Environmental Deposition of Lead (Pb) in Certain Selected Samples in the Industrial Areas of Gazipur District of Bangladesh

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Hasty industrialization affects the environment in different ways by discharging the large quantity of effluents as dissipate water in the surrounding water bodies, causing the solemn problems to environment. Twenty (n=20) samples of each category were collected from different locations of Gazipur. 3-5 goat of each sample was considered for analytical procedure. The results of analysis of variance of mean Pb-concentration in different samples collected from different locations differed significantly (P<0.05). The detected mean value of lead (Pb) concentration in drinking water (ground water), surface water, industrial waste water and agricultural soil (crop land) was 0.048±0.005mg/L ml/L, 0.428±0.098 ml/L, and 38.859±5.766 ml/L and 79.059±16.261 mg/kg. The mean value of concentrations of lead (Pb) was also detected in poultry tissue and litter samples. The highest level of lead (Pb) concentration was found in bone followed by brain, kidney, liver and muscles. The detected mean value of lead (Pb) in bone, brain, kidney, liver and muscles were 0.082±0.005 mg/kg, 0.073±0.007 mg/kg, 0.071±0.007 mg/kg, 0.052±0.011 mg/kg and 0.038±0.005, respectively. As regards biological samples, the highest natural accumulation of lead (Pb) was found in chicken bone while the lowest concentration (Pb) was detected in muscles. The natural accumulation of Pb was highly and significantly (P<0.001). The poultry litter (0.580±0.059 mg/kg) was also detected significantly (P<0.05) as a major toxic agent in respect of lead (Pb) for environmental degradation due to the use of poultry litter in agricultural soil (crop land) to grow more crops and vegetables.

Keywords: Lead, environment, poultry litter

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Extraction of Crop Residue Burnt Field and its Impact on Soil Fertility (Case study of Central Madhya Pradesh, India)

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Abstract. Fire is a good tool for removing the crop residue. Crop residue burning is a common phenomenon in all countries which produces excess amount of gases like Sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), methane (CH4), volatile organic compounds (VOC), un-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), ozone (O3), aerosols etc and heat that is very harmful for global environment. Crop residue burning is familiar process in central Madhya Pradesh which effects ranging from human health to large carbon emissions and soil fertility. In central Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal, Raisen and Mandideep district), wheat and soyabean are major crops which left a huge amount of mass after harvesting. We used remotely Sensed data (ETM+) for identification of un-burnt (16th February 2013) and burnt (16th May 2013) field. Spectral data of un-burnt and burnt field are collected by ground truth and classified satellite data. Whole study area is prominently covered by agricultural land and huge area is burnt to remove the residue. By the analysis of soil samples, we found that soil nutrients are deteriorating due to frequent burning in three different villages as Sadalatpur, Barbatpur and Mandideep of Bhopal, Raisen and Mandideep district respectively. Average 17.32 % Carbon, 12.69 % Nitrogen and 16.23 % Potassium is deteriorating after burning residue in wheat field. Average 9.95 % Carbon, 29.17 % Nitrogen and 15.65 % Potassium is deteriorating in Soyabean field. So it is suggested to plough the field after harvesting the crops and produce bio fertilizes continuously adoption of this practice by farmers will prove immensely useful because of reduced air pollution and recycling of nutrients.

Keywords: Crop Residue, Burning, Soil Fertility, Spectro-radiometer and Central Madhya Pradesh

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Residual Effects of Farm Yard Manure on Soil Properties in Spring Season, Chitwan, Nepal

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Abstract. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is major organic manure used in the context of Nepal. Year round availability of FYM is difficult because of decreasing livestock population. Two experiments were carried out in Randomized complete block design with six treatments (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 tons FYM/ha) replicated four times at the research farm of IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. First experiment was conducted in winter season (Oct-Jan) and second experiment was conducted in spring season (Feb - May). No additional FYM was kept in second season in order to study the residual effect of farm yard manure. 50% of the FYM mineralized in the first season hence, for second season residual levels of FYM (0, 3.5, 7, 10.5, 14, 17.5 t/ha) were considered as treatments. In winter season Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italilca) and in spring season Mung beans (Vigna radiata) were planted. EC1:5 and pH were not significantly affected in winter season but pH significantly differs in spring season residuals. The highest pH value (6.9 ± 0.11) was observed in the residual FYM level 10.5 t/ha. EC1:5 in spring season also not significantly affected by residual FYM level. There is decreasing trend of bulk density and increasing trend of porosity was found. The highest porosity and the lowest bulk density values were obtained from the treatments 21 tons FYM/ha in first season and also from residual FYM level 10.5 t/ha. Crop yields and biomass production were also significantly different in 21 tons FYM/ha than rest of other treatments. Hence, 21 tons FYM/ha in dry matter basis is optimum dose of FYM in Chitwan context to maintain the soil and residual level is also sufficient to supply plant nutrients fertility in legume rotated system.

Keywords: Farm yard manure, residual effect, soil properties, soil fertility

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