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Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Buffalo at Sylhet District

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. The buffalo plays an important role in farmer's economic life in Bangladesh. This study aims to characterize the indigenous, an undocumented buffalo phenotypically during the time period from September 2013 to February 2014. The data were collected from 120 adult buffaloes (60 male, 60 female), through interview from the farmers with the help of pre-form questionnaire. The coat color of the buffaloes was predominantly light to dark grey (92.50%). Light color mark (86%) present on the dewlap. Horns are long, curved laterally and extended directed backwards without twisting. Eyes, eyelashes and horn color were predominantly black. Whitish color mark (96.50%) presents below the knee and hock joint up to fetlock joint in both legs. The phenotypic character and behavior indicated that buffalo of Sylhet district might be swamp type. Body weight is highly related with body length, heart girth, wither height. Body weight, body length, heart girth, withers height, foreleg, hind leg, head, ear, horn, tail length, ear, head width of male and female buffalo recorded were 447.83±42.27 and 426.68±31.79kg; 121.88±5.15 and 115.56±4.24; 196.50±6.02 and 192.06±4.90 cm; 118.20±3.16 and 112.85±1.65; 68.86±2.96 and 62.35±1.89; 76.66±2.80 and 70.36±2.42; 48.78±3.17 and 42.70±2.66; 25.35±2.20 and 22.41±2.08; 53.70±4.60 and 46.58±2.14; 72.26±2.48 and 69.63±2.20; 18.48±2.91 and 13.85±1.51; 18.56±2.88 and 13.98±1.69 cm respectively. Male buffalo was comparatively heavier than female buffalo.

Keywords: Buffalo, Characterization, Indigenous, Phenotypic, Swamp

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Validation of Two Analytical Methods to Measure Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater in Chandrapur District, Central India

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Fluoride is ubiquitous in natural water sources used around the world for drinking and cooking. The health impacts of chronic exposure to fluoride through water, which in groundwater sources can reach well above the World Health Organization's (1984) defined limit of 1.0-1.5 mg/L, is well understood. As fluoride is a two edge sword its precise concentration in groundwater should be known. To quantify the impact of consumption of fluoride in groundwater on human health, it is important to accurately assess naturally occurring exposure levels among population. In this study, the validity of fluoride concentration in groundwater was evaluated by using two analytical methods: SPANDS method (spectrophotometer) and HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. Fluoride Test Kit (visual method). Total 36 groundwater samples from dug wells and hand pumps in Chandrapur district were assessed for post monsoon season in 2013 (October) for fluoride concentration by these two methods. SPANDS method gives more accurate point-of-use results across a wide range of fluoride concentrations under challenging filed conditions as compared with HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. Fluoride Test-Kit.

Keywords: Chandrapur, Fluoride, Groundwater, HiMedia Fluoride Test Kit, India, SPANDS Method, Water quality

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Determination of Mineral Accumulation through Litter Fall of Parkia Biglobosa Jacq Benth and Vitellaria Paradoxa Lahm Trees in Abuja, Nigeria

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Abstract. The availability of the nutrients in the soil contributes to its accumulation in tree plants as it is examined in the study that contribution of leaf litter fall of Parkia biglobosa Jacq Benth and Vitellaria paradoxa Lahm on the University of Abuja Teaching and Research Farm. The aim of this research is to determine some of the basic nutrient elements present in the harvested leaf litter (biomass) of the two tree forest crops on the Farm for a period of one rainy season. The study was a field work of which leaf litter were collected from four selected trees each of the 2 sampled species, routinely over a 6 month period with the upper layer soil serving as control and analysed using the Randomized Complete Block Design. Findings using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that soil fertility may be dependent upon the nutrient accumulation as it was discovered that P. biglobosa (2.75g/l) fixes more nitrogen into the soil compared to V. paradoxa (2.12g/l). Though both tree species added huge amounts of calcium especially in P.biglobosa (69.6 g/l) but all elements were significant (p=0.05) except Magnesium and Sodium. The study showed the need to have more trees planted on the farm to ensure constant nitrogen and other macro elements essential for plant growth and development to sustain crop production and sustainability

Keywords: Leaf, Nitrogen, Nutrient, Vitellaria paradoxa

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