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Impact of the Integration of Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs Combined with Sticky Traps in the Protection of Potato Plants against Two Sucking Insect Pests

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Field studies were carried out during the summer season (2012) at Noubariya Province, EL-Beheera Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the efficacy of the integration between the sticky traps and medicinal plants in controlling two dangerous sucking insect pests (Bemisia tabaci and Empoasca discipiens) attacking potato plants causes direct damage and transmission of several viruses and hence high losses in the yield. Data of field observation showed that the abundance of leafhoppers, E. discipiens was recorded in the 1st half of May on the leaves of both potato varieties (Spunta & Nikola), while B. tabaci acquired its peak in 2nd half of May. The population of B. tabaci was highly active on potato plants (variety Spunta) while the lowest population was acquired on Nikola variety while the leafhopper, E. discipiens, which was more abundant on the leaves of Nikola variety surrounded by basil, mint or Marjoram herbs than with control plants. Both herbal plants (Marjoram and Mint) have repellent effect against B. tabaci in case of Spunta variety, while Mint plant was more effective against leafhopper insects on the leaves of Nikola variety than those were surrounded by Marjoram. Highly significant difference was recorded between the treatments and the control plant. The combined effects of the prevailing climatic factors (temperature and humidity) have a significant effect on the activity of E. discipiens and B. tabaci in the field of potato. It could be concluded that potato fields surrounded by medicinal and aromatic herbs gave more protection against infestation with E. discipiens and B. tabaci than those in control unit.

Keywords: medicinal and aromatic herbs, sticky traps, potato variety, sucking insect pests

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Some Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Briquettes of White Afara (Terminalia superba) Sawdust and Organic Binders

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Abstract. Some engineering characteristics of briquettes produced from white afara (Terminalia superba) sawdust and binder agents (phytoplankton scum, banana peel, yam peels and cassava peels) at different binder ratio (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% by weight of each feedstock) and at compaction pressure of 15 MPa was investigated. As the binder ratio increased from 10.0 to 50.0%, the bulk density increased from 103.87 to 159.48 kg/m3 for phytoplankton, 117.61 to 178.32 kg/m3 for banana peels, 126.04 to 185.62 kg/m3 for yam and 130.43 to 198.51 kg/m3 for cassava peels. The compressed density, relaxed density, compressive strength, compaction ratio, relaxation ratio and shattering index of briquettes increased with increase in binder ratio from 10.0 to 50.0%. The cassava peels bonded briquettes had the best physical and mechanical characteristics qualities compared with other biomass bonded briquettes.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, binder levels, compression, handling characteristics, softwood

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Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis and Comparative Efficacy of Anthelmintics on Body Weight of Cattle in Bangladesh

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Abstract. In cattle, parasites cause serious loss of production in Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis and effects of the anthelmintics on body weight of 1.5-3 years old cattle. A total of 52 cattle, 30 were heavily infested with gastrointestinal nematodes which were identified by faecal examination to determine the eggs by direct smear, flotation methods and Egg Counting Mc. Master Methods. Among 30 cattle 20 were selected on the basis of clinical symptoms and randomly divided into four equal groups. Group A, B and C were treated with Albendazole (Helmex-vet®) 7.5, Fenbendazole (Peraclear®) 7.5 and Levamisole (Ralnex®) 7.5 mg/kg body weight orally. Group D was kept as infected control. In present study Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum and mixed infections were observed before treatment. The prevalence was highest for Haemonchus (17.31%), followed by mixed infections (13.46%), Trichostrongylus (9.61%), Oesophagostomum (7.69%), Trichuris (5.77%) and Bunostomum (3.85%). A significant (p<0.01) reduction of EPG count on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of Helmex-vet® (46.91%, 72.84%, 84.44%, 93.58%), Peraclear® (46.67%, 71.67%, 83.33%, 90.56%) and Ralnex® (49.27%, 72.82%, 93.93%, 85.80%) of treated cattle of group A,B and C respectively. EPG counts of untreated control group were increased 3.37%, 6.75%, 8.13% and 9.69% on 7th,14th,21st and 28th day respectively. The body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01) after Helmex-vet®, Peraclear® and Ralnex® treatment in group A,B,C (2.2%, 1.9% and 2.19%) respectively. On the other hand body weight was reduced to the extent of 0.82% in the control group D after 28 days.

Keywords: Anthelmintics, body weight, Cattle, Nematodiasis

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