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Application of Green-Ampt Equation to Infiltration with Soil Particle Phase

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. A physically based model describing the mechanism of infiltration of soil suspension into a uniform soil profile was formulated based on the Green-Ampt (G-A) flow theory. It also incorporated the concept of surface sealing and allowed for a developing seal with time. The cumulative infiltration amount was found to be related to a constant which is a function of the particle diameter of the sediment, and describes the saturated hydraulic conductivity of seal. Thus, a modified G-A method for infiltration with transient seal formation is proposed that provides improved infiltration and surface sealing predictions during infiltration of muddy water. For the three suspensions used in testing the validity of the model, the coefficient of determination R2 ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9998 with RMSE ranging from 0.00814 to 0.0793. The accuracy of the model’s prediction capability was in the order of 0 g > 10 g > 20 g > 30 g > 40 g for fine-sand suspension and 0 g > 10 g > 20 g > 40 g > 30 g for silt and clay suspensions. Overall, the predictability of the model was ranked using the R2 values of the order: Clear water > Fine-Sand suspension > Silt suspension > Clay suspension.

Keywords: Infiltration, Seal, Suspension, Sediment

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Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Vp2 Gene of Infectious Bursal Disease: Demonstrated No Predominant New Strains Circulating in Bangladesh

Abstract. The present study was conducted for molecular characterization of Bangladeshi isolates of Infectious Bursal Disease virus to establish genetic diversity with other European and Asian strains. A total of 129 bursa of Fabricius were collected after post mortem from IBD infected chicken. Only 30 samples were confirmed for IBDV by amplification of a 729-bp fragment of the VP2 gene hyper variable region using RT-PCR. The hyper variable region (aa 184-426) of amplified VP2 fragments of the 30 IBDV isolates were sequenced and compared with 10 strains published in Gene Bank and their phylogenic relationship were analyzed. Amino acid sequences analysis of the hyper variable region of the VP2 gene revealed that 27 isolates were 99% identical with European and Asian vvIBDV strains and 3 isolates showed close relationship with classical strains of IBDV. Twenty seven Bangladeshi vvIBDV isolates encode amino acids 222A, 2421, 2561, 294I, and 299S, which are conserved among other vvIBDV strains. The 3 Classical isolates showed amino acid substitutions at 222A→P, 256I→V, and 299 S→N positions. All isolates had the same heptapeptide 279D, S-W-S-A-S-G-S (326→332), and 284A. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequence revealed that the Bangladeshi isolates were closely related to European and Asian vvIBDV. Taken together, there was no predominant new strain circulating in Bangladesh during June 2009-May 2011. Moreover, in order to protect birds from the sudden emergence of new predominant strains, continuing surveillance of IBDV strains circulating in the field is of utmost importance.

Keywords: Characterization, IBD, Sequence analysis, VP2

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Underground Water Distribution System in Gwagwalada Area Council Abuja, Nigeria, using Resistivity Geophysical Method

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. The availability of quality water resources has always been the primary concern of societies in semi-arid and arid regions, even in areas of more abundant rainfall, the problem of obtaining adequate supply of quality water is generally becoming more acute due to ever increasing population and industrialization. This study applied Vertical Electrical Sounding [VES] method to investigate the exploration of groundwater in Gwagwalada areas council FCT Abuja. A total of 12 VES were carried out in different parts of the study area. The field data obtained was analyzed and interpreted using Ipi2Win Software. The curves reveal that the area is characterized by 3-4 classes of geo-electric layers. Low resistive topsoil layer (thickness 1 – 4.09 m), weathered layer (thickness 1.35 – 119 m), fractured basement (thickness 30.4 – 117 m), and the fresh basement layer (thickness >25 m) respectively. The results indicate the occurrence of good aquifers in the second and third layers indicating that borehole drilling in the study area is achievable but to a depth of 45 meters to allow large reservoir within the aquifers. From the analysis, weathered basement and fractured basement aquifers, were delineated; these aquifer units may have significant groundwater potential.

Keywords: Geophysical survey, Gwagwalada, aquifer, groundwater potential, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

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