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Effect of Irrigation Water Quality and Fertilizer Applications on Pre- and Post-Storage Bacterial Infection of Lettuce

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. One major problem faced by farmers is irrigation, especially, with sources of quality irrigation water. Most often, farmers have increasing problems finding unpolluted water sources for irrigation. Currently, urban and peri-urban vegetable growers in the major cities of Ghana have placed a special focus on the use of wastewater for irrigation, which in its untreated form could have negative impacts on public health and the environment. This study focused on the effects of stream water on the quality of three cultivars of lettuce; Great Lake, Eden and Trinity were assessed and analysed. The cultivars were raised, harvested and stored at the Department of Horticulture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. The study was 3 × 3 factorial in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). The harvested leaves were assessed for E. coli and faecal enterococci contamination. The treatments showed insignificant effects (p < 0.05) on the contaminant load. However, the cultivars varied (p < 0.05) with regards to the quality indicators assessed. Similarly, the interaction of the treatments and cultivars showed significant differences. The results revealed the stream water used for irrigation as the source of the bacterial contaminants. The highest level of E. coli and faecal enterococci contamination ranged from 4.09 – 4.58 log cfu/g and 2.49 – 2.56 log cfu/g while the lowest loads recorded were 0.50 – 0.90 log cfu/g and 1.57 – 1.81 log cfu/g, respectively. Great Lakes harvested from plots amended with NPK was the only sample to have had no E. coli pathogens. Only few of the samples recorded contamination levels below the satisfactory microbiological hygiene critical level of 2 log cfu/g.

Keywords: E. coli, Eden, Faecal enterococci, Great Lake, Trinity

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0105-0112

 

Effect of Protein Sources in the Starter Ration on the Behavioral Response of Suckling Buffalo Calves

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. The experiment was conducted on 18 buffalo calves of about 1-3 months of age to find effects of three different calf starters (differing on the source of protein) on the behavioral response. The calves were divided into three groups (six calves in each group) randomly under three treatments i.e. T1, T2 and T3. In T1 group groundnut cake, T2 group soyabean and in T3 group mustard cake with fish meal (10%) as protein source, respectively with green fodder and bhusa was fed ad lib. Average eating time spent during day time by the calves were 215.53 ± 8.703, 213.16 ± 9.841 and 182.03 ± 10.318 minutes and the corresponding figures for rumination and resting time spent during day time were 130.07 ± 5.397, 168.17 ± 6.742 and 152.0 ± 11.475 minutes and 280.57 ± 14.988, 274.77 ± 18.566 and 226.03 ± 18.540 minutes in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively revealed that feeding behavior was significantly influenced by the treatments. The eating time was significantly (P<0.05) low in T3 as compared to T1 & T2. However, there was no significant difference between T1 & T2. The rumination time was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 as compared to T3. The rearing cost per kg body weight gain was Rs. 33.86, 26.91 and 32.56 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The cost per kg body weight gain was less in T2 followed by T1 and T3.

Keywords: Behavior, calf starter, feed conversion efficiency, rearing cost

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0113-0116

 

Open Field Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Cultivars in the Rainy Season at Woreta, South Gondar, Ethiopia

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Tomato production in Amhara region of Ethiopia has been restricted to dry season cultivation using irrigation while open field tomato production under rain fed was considered difficult mainly due to disease incidence. Despite ever increasing year round demand for tomato fruits, supply is nearly nil in the rainy season and prices skyrocket. Aiming to evaluate the performance of tomato cultivars with the application of appropriate field management practices including fungicide spraying, field experiments were conducted at Fogera Agricultural Research Center during the rainy season of 2014. Cultivars Melka salsa and Melka shola consistently performed superior than the other cultivars ultimately producing the highest marketable tomato fruits, on average 230.53 and 222.73 quintal per hectare, respectively. The study further revealed that cultivar Melka salsa was the earliest in attaining fifty per cent flowering and the most tolerant in its reaction to diseases. Unmarketable fruit number due to diseases, insects and physiological disorder ranged from 20.3 to 72.9 per cent. Developing and applying appropriate integrated pest management technologies are thus required to further reduce unmarketable fruits, although it is unequivocally crucial to improve cultivars for better productivity too. Open field tomato production under rain fed is thus highly profitable with the use of integrated pest management practices.

Keywords: Cultivar, disease, open field, rainy season, unmarketable fruit

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0117-0125

 

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