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Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Ecosystem Goods and Services of Wetland (In case of Lake Ziway)

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Lake Ziway gives ecosystem goods and services for the people who live nearby of this ecosystem in four major kinds of goods and services of this ecosystem; they are regulation, habitat, production and information goods and services for the society near to this wet land. This study estimate economical value the ecosystem goods and services of Lake Ziway with of one of the economical valuation method called Willingness To Pay (WTP) by the fishermen and small scale irrigation users who are among the major users of this ecosystem. WTP is one of the methods of economical valuation of ecosystem goods and services which is categorizes under contingent valuation method and for analyzing the WTP the study used probit model. The result showed that average WTP of fishermen was 341.62 Birr ($17.98) per year and the aggregate WTP of fishermen was 543,175.43 Birr ($28,588.18) per year for goods and services of Lake Ziway ecosystem. And like of the fishermen small scale irrigation users also gave their own WTP for this ecosystem goods and services; the average WTP of small scale irrigation users was 530 Birr ($27.89) per year and aggregate WTP of them was 874,514.72 Birr ($46,027.09) for ecosystem goods and services of Lake Ziway. Estimating of WTP helped to include monitory value of ecosystem goods and services for decision making process of various socioeconomic planning which used for reduce market failurity of it.

Keywords: Economical Valuation; Ecosystem; Wetland; WTP

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0175-0184

 

A Design and Prototype Implementation of Sweet Sorghum Juice Extractor

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. There is growing interest in using sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, known locally as Ankolib) juice to produce ethanol. A design consists of a through hardened steel gear of a diameter of 0.12 m which rolls on four low alloy steel rollers each of a diameter of 0.02 m was proposed as a new idea of juice extractor. The prototype was fabricated using scrap and local materials. In order to enhance performance, two modifications were made to the fabricated prototype include; roller holding bracket height and gear teeth depth. Fabricated prototype was evaluated considering juice extraction ratio and fabrication costs. Ankolib cane moisture content was measured and was found to be 71.8 %, average extraction ratio (based on cane moisture content and hand cranking) obtained was found to be 30.5 %. Although extraction ratio obtained was found to be less than that expected, many advantages were noticed during operation. Extraction ratio obtained showed that, the proposed design and the fabricated prototype need further developments.

Keywords: Extraction ratio, moisture content%, Prototype, sweet sorghum juice

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0185-0196

 

Review of Research on Fungal Pathogen Attack and Plant Defense Mechanism against Pathogen

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Plants were challenged by damages caused by fungal infections. This research mainly investigates the effects of fungal stresses on structure and physiology on plants. Hence, different plants have evolved different complicated mechanisms for protecting themselves from the damages caused by plant pathogens. To avoid oxidative damage, plants have evolved various protective mechanisms to counteract the effects of ROS in cellular compartments. Multiple coordinated defence mechanisms have been induced in plants challenged by pathogens. Hence, lack of sufficient defence system against pathogen leading to wilting of leaves.

Keywords: Plant, Fungal pathogen, Defence mechanism

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2015-p0197-0208

 

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