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Aluminum and Zinc Oxides As New Hypothesis in Controlling Stored Grain Insects Compared to Malathion Insecticide

Abstract. Among the stored product beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbest) is a cosmopolitan and serious pest of cereal grains and their products. Undoubtedly, the excessive use of pesticides and chemical compounds led to a lot of discuses to humans, animals and the environment, in addition to high costs. In the present study two nanoparticles, Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) were used as stored product insect protectants compared to chemical insect malathion as standard reference. Results obtained cleared showed that malathion had the highest adverse effect on the all parameters studied of T. castaneum adults viz, mortality, offspring and weight loss percentage. Data obtained indicated that the increasing of concentration and exposure period caused increasing in mortality (%) and decreasing in weight loss (%). Also results accentuated that the two nanoparticles (Al2O3 and ZnO) significantly inhibited the number of progeny and weight loss (%) and the concentration of 2 g/kg wheat grain had the highest effect based on the LC50 values ZnO was had the most effect compared to Al2O3 nanoparticles. Finally, although malation was the premier, the present study suggest to use Al2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles in integrated pest management programs as alternative to chemical insecticides where they are considered safe for humans if compared with synthetic insecticide.

Keywords: hypothesis, insects, Zinc oxides

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Evaluation Some Genotypes of Soybeans Yield Under Pest Infestation

Abstract. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate ten soybean genotypes and Giza35 (check) for their resistance to infestation by cotton leaf worm under natural infestation (defoliation %), spider mite, thrips and aphid, with yielding potential. The results revealed significant differences among the tested soybean genotypes for all studied traits. Three genotypes H 19 L 96, H 4 L 24 and H 32 were considered as the best with high yield and lowest pests' infestation; in contrast H 1 L 1, L 127 with highest infestation and lowest yield genotype. Meanwhile, aphid infestation did not detect any significant loss in seed yield of soybean. Simple correlation analysis indicated that seed yield was positively correlated with number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant, 100- seed weight and number of branches per plant. Then, selection for more number of branches, pods, seeds per plant and 100-seed weight would be accompanied by high soybean yielding ability under pests' infestation. Meanwhile, simple regression analysis revealed the highly significant negative relationship between seed yield and cotton leaf worm infestation (yield-infestation response as an inverse linear relationship). But, cotton leaf worm infestation (defoliation %) had significant positive relationship with spider mite infestation. It could be indicated that the defoliation % and spider mite infestation involved in this study affected the variability of seed yield. Stepwise multiple linear regressions confirmed that number of seeds per plant, branches per plant and 100-seed weight were the most important traits affecting seed yield under infestation (R2= 87.21%). Then, cluster C (Giza35, Giza111, H19 L96, L117, H32 and H4 L24) which concluded Giza35 was considered as resistant cluster with highest yield. These selecting superior genotypes will be useful for to use them in breeding program to improve some economically important traits as yield and pests resistance.

Keywords: Soybean, Spodoptera littoralis, Defoliation, Tetranychus urticae, Thrips tabaci, Aphis gossypii

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Effect of Zeolite on Feeding Rates and Growth Performance for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)

Abstract. This study was carried out to study the effect of a feed additive; zeolite on feeding rates and growth performance of monosex males of tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Zeolite has been added to the ration of the Nile tilapia at the dose of 2% to evaluate its ability in reducing the rate of feeding Nile tilapia. In addition to the parameters of growth performance. Six earthen ponds were designed (feddan; 100x42m each) were stocked by tilapia fingerlings (two replicates per treatment) for the three treatments and stocked by the rate 3 fish / m3. The experimental earthen ponds were fed as following: the first treatment was of 2% of body weight, treatment 2 was of 2.5% and the third treatment was of 3% of body weight. The duration of the experiment lasted up 20 weeks and the obtained results are summarized as: Growth parameters: The second treatment recorded the highest ranges of body weight (BW), body length (BL), daily weight gain (DWG)and specific growth rate (SGR). On the other side the third treatment recorded the best condition factor (K). Chemical composition: The second treatment recorded the best protein% and the third treatment recorded the highest fat% content. while the first treatment recorded the best dry matter and ash contents. From this study, it can be concluded that feeding tilapia on artificial feed containing 30% crude protein at a rate of 2.5% of the body weight gave best economic efficiency.

Keywords: Growth, Nile Tilapia, Zeolite

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The Importance of Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Urbanism (The Chinese Experience)

Abstract. The major urbanization activities are taking place in the developing world. Consequently, sensitivity to environmental issues related to energy, efficiency and sustainability become a vital issue when addressing urbanization. Although many countries of the developed world have given considerable attention to this issue, most developing countries have paid little or none attention. Urban energy consumption plays an ever-increasing role, as more than half of the world´s because the most of states are facing the challenge of meeting energy demand sustainably. Buildings energy consumption is a large ultimate driving force of a nation's energy use. Realizing a sustainable energy future will require behavioral change on the consumption side. In this context, examining the role of neighborhoods is important since neighborhoods are the building blocks of urban area‟s growth and the neighborhoods we build now will have a long-lasting effect on households' lifestyles of energy consumption. The paper studies the Impact of urbanization on urban energy in order to identify the factors having the most impact in planning for energy efficiency and its Multiple Benefits. In addition, energy consumption moderation in urban planning according to the main dimensions of sustainability and main levels where energy consumption moderation / decrease issues in cities should be tackled. This paper is addressing the relationship between energy efficiency and sustainable urbanisms throw the role of Sustainable urban form for energy efficiency. The article presents The Chinese experience: the Landsea housing project in Nanjing as a case study In order to reach a comprehensive assessment for the Sustainable urbanism of a residential area, which is a complicated built unit, should include economic, social and environmental aspects. Environmental aspects are energy, water, waste, etc., as discussed above. It is obvious that all these aspects are related and thus the assessment must be integrated. The aim was to improve the framework for sustainable urbanism, from energy efficiency to integrated sustainability.

Keywords: Urbanization, Urban energy, Energy consumption, Energy efficiency, Energy moderation, urban form, sustainable urbanism, China

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Transformation toward Renewable Energy Systems in Urban Areas: (Challenges And Strategies)

Abstract. Urban energy consumption plays an ever-increasing role, as more than half of the world´s population already lives in cities. Many municipalities have decided on ambitious goals to become climate neutral within the next decades, however, very limited experience is available of how demand can be significantly reduced on a city scale and what contributions local renewable energy sources can bring to cities. There is an urgent need for transformation from existing fossil fuel based energy systems to one based on renewable resources to decrease reliance on depleting reserves of fossil fuels with the objective to assess whether the transition to a renewable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. Renewable energy improvements in urban areas can help protect against the adverse health effects of low and high temperatures and outdoor air pollution; transport interventions, especially ones that entail increased walking and cycling, can help improve physical activity and the urban environment; and switching to low carbon fuels to generate electricity can reduce air pollution-related health burdens. However, interventions need to be carefully designed and implemented to maximize health benefits and minimize potential adverse health risks. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. The conclusion is that such transformation will be possible; the necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved, especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial. Therefore, the renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plan.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar Photovoltaic, Micro Wind Turbines, urban energy, Transformations, Challenges, Renewable Technologies, Renewable energy city, Solar City, Urban algae, Green Urbanism, Egypt

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Efficiency of Pseudomonas fluorescence as Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the Enhancement of Seedling Vigor, Nitrogen Uptake, Yield and Its Attributes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Abstract. Two field experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Sakha, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt during 2013 and 2014 rice seasons to study the effect of two application methods of Pseudomonas fluorescence as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in permanent field and Pseudomonas fluorescence inoculation method in nursery as well as their combinations with inorganic nitrogen fertilizers on seed germination, seedling vigor, nitrogen uptake, grain yield and its attributes of Giza 179 rice cultivar. The preceding crop was barley in both seasons. Inoculated rice in the nursery by PGPR Pseudomonas flourescens (PGPR Pf) bacterial inoculation caused an increase in seed germination, seedling vigor characters, yield and most of its attributes. Also, the application of inorganic nitrogen and the previously mentioned bacteria in the permanent field improved the yield and its attributes. Such as number of panicles m-2, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grains,1000 grain weight, nitrogen uptake in grain (Kg fed-1), nitrogen uptake in straw (Kg fed-1), grain yield and straw yield. The highest values of these characters mostly obtained from the combination of 46 kg N fed-1 plus PGPR Pf soil application and PGPR Pf foliar spray bacterial application in permanent field with inoculatedseedling of PGPR Pseudomonas flourescens (PGPR Pf).The interaction between biofertilizers inoculation in nursery and bio, inorganic nitrogen application methods had a significant effect on all mentioned traits.

Keywords: Rice, Biofertilizers, Pseudomonas fluorescence, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Inorganic nitrogen

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Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes

Abstract. Nowadays, water pollution and its scarcity are the main problems that humankind is facing. In this regards, great attention is being given to the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that are based on generation of highly reactive species, especially hydroxyl radicals. Among them, Fenton and photo-Fenton’s oxidation processes. In this work, a comparison between fenton process and photo-fenton oxidation process as advanced oxidation processes for treatment of tannery wastewater was made. Firstly, the physicochemical characteristics of the filtered effluent were determined, The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 554 ppm, total organic carbon (TOC) is 170.8 ppm, total dissolved solids is 50gl-1 and the pH is 3.5. The maximum COD removal is (82.7%) for fentonʼs oxidation process and for photo-Fenton process giving maximum COD removal (90.1%) at pH 3, Fe2+ 0.5gl-1, H2O2 30gl-1, 2h. All experiments were performed at ambient temperature followed by precipitation of chromium with NaOH at pH 8.5, stirring 0.5h, settling 2h. The low cost iron sulfate and high COD removal make photo-fenton process superior method for degradation of organic pollutants from tannery wastewater. This study was made with the help of UV-Vis/NIR spectrophotometer and FT-IR analyses.

Keywords: photodegradation, Tannery wastewater, Photo-fenton

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Direct Effects of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) on The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae

Abstract. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with two certain colors, white and blue, proved successfully its direct effects on the two forms of Tetranychus urticae. LEDs, Vertimec (the most pronounced compound against mites), and joined treatments were compared in the two ways under laboratory conditions: mortality percentages and translaminar effect. Gained results clarify that the interaction of Vertimec and LEDs always recorded the highest direct effect, 100% mortality, against adult females of both forms even by determination of mortality percentages or translaminar effects followed by others. Besides, LEDs had sufficient translaminar effect more than Vertimec, significantly. White LEDs were more effective against the green form in all treatments while Blue LEDs were more effective against the red form. The specific activity of Mono amine oxidases was determined in all treatments and compared with the control. All treatments caused inhibition of the enzyme but White LEDs and Blue LEDs joined with Vertimec LC50 decreased the enzyme activity of the green type of T. urticae (0.09 and 0.13 mOD min-1 mg-1 proteins, resp.) more than the red type (0.1 and 0.17 mOD min-1 mg-1 proteins, resp.). In conclusion, there was a close positive relation among accumulation of biogenic amines and ratio of mortality which was affected mainly by exposure to LEDs colors in comparison with the control.

Keywords: Diodes, Tetranychus, Vertimec, Translaminar, mortality, monoamine oxidases (MAO)

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Effect Micro Irrigation Systems, Irrigation Period and Seed Thickness on Barley Sprout Production

Abstract. The experiments carried out during July 2014 in hydroponics unit in Qwisna, El-Minufia governorate to investigate the effect of micro irrigation system, irrigation period and seed thickness in the tray on barley sprout produced hydroponically. The objective of this paper was study the effect of different nozzles (fogger, mist and mini sprinklers), irrigation periods (30sec, 60sec and 90sec) for (2hr,4hr and 6hr) respectively and seed thickness in the trays (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) on barely sprouts produced hydroponically. Measurements were taken for every production unit (WUE, yield/tray, yield/kg seed, protein %, fibers%) . Data showed that using fogger gave the highest CU%, DU%, water use efficiency, yield/kg seed, protein %, fiber % and carbohydrates %. On the other hand, data illustrated that using 0.5 cm seed thickness recorded the highest yield/kg seed, protein %, fiber % and carbohydrates %. Concerning using 30 sec/2hr recorded the highest water use efficiency, yield/kg seed, protein %, fiber % and carbohydrates %. Finally, from the overall results it can concluded that using 0.5 cm seed thickness irrigated 30 sec/2hr with fogger recorded the highest tested parameters.

Keywords: Micro Irrigation, Irrigation Period, Seed Thickness, Barley

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Raising Integrated Individual Minute Agricultural Settlements Attached to Desalination Solar Devices on Sea Shores

Abstract. The conception is dealing with the establishment of agricultural communities along the sea shores and in the depth as far as the sea water can be transferred using only means of renewable clean energy, such as wind. Previous experience gained through a solar desalination project, applying the greenhouse principle, realized 1976-1981in Egypt through the Dornier Company, Federal German Republic. Each individual settlement is supposed to maintain a family of five members, consisting of a greenhouse for vegetable production, fish or shrimp pond, fruit-trees grown on sewage effluents, sheep and goats or limited cattle fed from crop wastes, and a collective pond for each 10 units used for salt production from the concentrated brine. The total needed surface for each settlement is 1500m2 including a share in the roads necessary for transportation. Marketing of the products takes place, mainly, in the neighbouring consumption sites, such as mining, petroleum, and tourism enterprises. Regarding the surface magnitude each frontal, dimension of 1000m, if the strip has the depth of one kilometer; 100 hectare along the shore line. Supposing that only about the half is used to raise greenhouses, with the used standard units (270m2) reach 185 greenhouses, enough to supply a corresponding population, and offer a reasonable welfare.

The author, being the owner and manager of the Afro-Asian Agricultural Consulting welcomes any serious inquiries for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Desalination, Sea Shores, Solar Devices

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