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Receptor Modeling Application on Surface Water Quality and Source Apportionment

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. There is need for regular monitoring of river water quality to determine specific pollutants in order to aid amelioration schemes. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied on eighteen water quality parameters; pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen(DO), turbidity, temperature ,total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS),total hardness (TH), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) to identify major sources of water pollution of river Asa. The generated Principal Components (PCs) were used as independent variables and water quality index (WQI) as dependent variable to predict the contribution of each of the sources using multiple linear regression model (MLR). The PCs results showed that the sources of pollution are storm water runoff, industrial effluent, erosion and municipal waste, while MLR identified storm water runoff (0.786) and industrial effluent (0.241) as the respective major contributors of pollution. The study showed that PC-MLR model gives good prediction (R2=0.8) for water quality index.

Keywords: multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, river Asa, water quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2016-p0001-0010

 

Effects of Indigenous Wood Specie and Plastic/Wood Ratio on Physicomechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. As noted wood flour species plays an important role in the properties of the resulting composites. The effect of wood species as filler and reinforcement agent on physical and mechanical properties of the WPC was investigated. The used wood species in this study were Ceiba pentandra; Triplochiton scleroxylon and Entandrophragma cylindricum at plastic/wood ratio of 1:2.3, 1:1.5 and 1:1 (w/w). The physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption, thickness swelling, linear expansion, density, weight gained, flexural modulus and strength were tested. Entandrophragma cylindricum ranked highly in mechanical properties at plastic/wood ratio of 1:2.3, and more dimensionally stable at plastic/wood ratio of 1:1. As the wood content increases in the formulations of the composite, the increased in the flexural and decreased in dimensional stability of the composites produced. This observation follows the same trend in all the wood species employed for the production of composites tested. Based on the results, the guidelines information from this study could be used as a basis for WPC manufacture in tropical country like Nigeria.

Keywords: Ceiba pentandra, Entandrophragma cylindricum, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Nigeria

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2016-p0011-0017

 

Development of Management Approach against Thrips-Mite Complex of Chilli

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. The field experiment was conducted at Spices Research Centre, Shibganj, Bogra, Bangladesh during Rabi season of 2014-15 to develop an integrated management approach against thrips-mite complex of chilli. The treatments were five including control. Spraying of Chlorphenapyr (Intrepid 10SC) @ 1ml/litre of water + White sticky trap @ 40 traps/ha resulted the lowest thrips (0.86 thrips/leaf) and mite (0.97 mite/leaf) population with highest marginal benefit cost ratio (33.02). The highest percentage of thrips (87.02%) and mite (87.32%) population reduction over control with maximum red ripe chilli yield (12.72 t/ha) was also obtained from Chlorphenapyr + White sticky trap. Thrips and mite populations are negatively correlated with Chlorophyll Concentration Index of leaf. However, the lowest percentage of upward (19.05%) and dounward leaf curl (21.08%) was also obtained from Chlorphenapyr + White sticky trap treated plot followed by White sticky trap + Abamectin + Success (22.75% and 25.15%, respectively) while the highest percentage of upward (71.25%) and dounward leaf curl (82.38%) was obtained from untreated control. So, installation of sticky white trap along with spraying of Chlorphenapyr may be recommended for effective management of thrips-mite complex in chilli.

Keywords: Chilli, Development, Pest Management, Thrips-mite complex

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2016-p0018-0024

 

Effect of Sowing Date and Seed Rate on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.,) Growth, Yield and Components of Yield at Sinana, Highland Conditions of Bale, Southeastern Ethiopia

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. The experiment was conducted during 2011-2013 Bona/Meher cropping seasons for three consecutive years to study the direct influence of sowing date, seed rate and their interactions on faba bean. The experiment was laid out in split-plot with randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications. Four seed rates (175, 200, 225 and 250 kg/ha) were used as main plot and four sowing dates, which begun on the onset of the rain shower and with two week sowing date intervals to the rest three sowing dates were used as a subplot. The results of the three years data revealed that sowing date significantly affected all the tested parameters except 1000 seed weight. Seed yield was declined by 5, 23.3 and 67% from first to the fourth sowing dates respectively. On the other hand, seed rate had no significant effect on all parameters except for plant height. The interaction effect between sowing date and seed rate showed all the tested parameters were significantly affected. The data indicated that the highest plant height, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, seed yield hectare-1 and 1000 seed weight were obtained at 250 kg/ha with third sowing, 200 kg/ha with first to third sowing, 250 kg/ha with second sowing, 250 kg/ha with first sowing and 175 kg/ha with third sowing date while the minimum value was obtained at fourth sowing date with consecutive seed rates. However, the partial budget analysis showed 175 kg/ha seed rates with early planting gave the highest marginal rate of return (MRR) and it was economical to produce faba bean in highlands of Bale. But, another seed rate experiment will be needed in the future with seed rates of less than 175 kg/ha for conclusive recommendations.

Keywords: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), seed rate, sowing date

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2016-p0025-0034

 

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