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Consideration of the Levels Exchangeable Cations and Selected Anions in Soils of Ethiope River Plain

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Abstract. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) (K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+) and anion exchange capacity (AEC) [S2- and P2O5 (oxide)] of the topsoils and subsoils of Urhuoka and Urhuovie were determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry respectively. In the subsoils of Urhuoka, the concentration of cations (1097 ± 1.01 mg/kg) was slightly more enriched than the topsoils (1047 ± 0.96 mg/kg). However, this trend was reversed in Urhuovie where 763.50 ± 0.34 mg/kg and 947.41 ± 0.64 mg/kg respectively was reported. The difference in concentrations between the two layers of soil for some cationic species may be explained in terms of accumulation of detrites in the topsoil. The pseudo-concentration of CEC by bases was higher in soils of Urhuoka (5.69 ± 0.08 and 5.49 ± 0.06 mol/kg) than Urhuovie (4.29 ± 0.05 and 3.24 ± 0.03 cmol/kg) for the top and subsoil respectively. There was significant difference at levels of P < 0.05 between exchangeable cations and the total fraction for the bases. However, since the soils were acidic to slightly acidic and low in exchangeable bases, there is the need to use organic fertilizers as well as liming so as to enhance the soil pH and nutrient levels if the plain is to be used for intensive agriculture.

Keywords: exchangeable bases, fertility, macronutrients, river plain, soil

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2017-p0001-0008


Kinetic Properties of Extracellular Thermophilic Naringinase Produced by Rhizophus Stolonifer Isolated from Palmyrah Fruit Pulp

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Abstract. Bitterness of the fruit juices is a serious challenge in the processing of fruit juices in the food industries. Debittering of the juice using the enzyme naringinase produced by diverse microbes naturally is a promising approach, as it causes minimal damage to the nutritional quality and enhances organoleptic properties. Since Naringinase is an expensive enzyme widely used in the food industry, there is scope for fermentation process development using new isolates, which would result in commercially viable processes. Rhizophus stolonifer was isolated from Palmyrah fruit pulp and the extracellular naringinase enzyme was characterized. The crude naringinase enzyme was highly active at 65ºC and it was very stable at 60ºC for at least one hour. Highest naringinase activity was obtained at pH 4.0 and the enzyme was stable at pH 4.5 for at least one hour. The enzyme showed zero order kinetics for 10 minutes. Vmax of the crude naringinase enzyme was 3.125 μmol/mL and Michaelis constant by Lineweaver-Burk Plot for naringin was 3.076 mg/mL under the conditions. Metal ions Mn2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+ increased the naringinase enzyme activity but Mg2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, Ca2+ and Na+ reduced the enzyme activity. Naringinase was more stable with Cu2+ than Mn2+ and Ba2+. The optimum conditions for naringinase activity can be achieved at 65oC and at pH 4.0 and the enzyme is stable for at least one hour. Therefore the naringinase enzyme from Rhizophus stolonifer isolated from palmyrah fruit pulp could be an ideal candidate for the debittering of acidic food items that are produced using moderately high temperatures in the food industries.

Keywords: Debittering, Kinetic properties, Michaelis constant, Naringinase, Palmyrah pulp, Rhizophus stolonifer

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2017-p0009-0018


Evaluation of Two Methods of Feeding for the Fattening of Dhofari Calves

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Abstract. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate two different trials for fattening Dhofari calves and find out which one was more economically profitable. A total of 12 local Dhofari calves were used and divided into two equal groups. Each group consisted of 6 calves of 12 months of age, with an average live body weight (LBW) of 206.7 ±7.48 kg. They were fed for 154 days with two different methods of fattening. In the first method calves were fed 3.25% of their live body weight, 77.5% of it as a commercial concentrate and 22.5% as Rhodes grass hay. In the second method calves were fed starting with 4.00 Kg commercial concentrate with increasing of 0.5 kg for every 25 kg live body weight increase while Rhodes grass hay was fixed by 3 kg. Daily feed consumption (DFC), total weight gain (TWG), daily weight gain (DWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and cost of production per one kilogram gain (CPG) were measured. The experiment started from April to September. Effect of season on FCR, DFC, and CPG was also investigated. Results showed significance (p <0.05) between the two trials in terms of DFC, FCR, and CPG in favor for the second trial. Results showed there was significant (P<0.05) effect of season on DFC, FCR, and CPG in both trials in favor for the summer season. It was concluded that fattening Dhofari growing calves breed on the second trial would be the economically profitable choice.

Keywords: Dhofari calves, Fattening methods, Feed Consumption, Production cost, Weight gain

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2017-p0019-0022


Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Ricinodendron heudelotii Wood for its Pulp and Paper Production Potential

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Abstract. The high demand for paper production due to its various uses, but the dwindling of forest trees as a result of deforestation and forest exploitation necessitate the investigation of Ricinodendron heudelotii, a lesser utilised tree species for its pulp and paper production potential. In addition, any technique for such investigation that would give reliable but fast information is encouraged. Therefore, infrared spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical components of R. heudelotii wood since chemical component. Ratios of syringyl to guaiacyl associated bands along the longitudinal and radial positions of the wood differ significantly. Higher syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of the corewood than middlewood was observed. The practical implication of this finding is that more chemical would be required to pulp R. heudelotii wood obtained from the base (10% of the merchantable height) and outerwood, because of the presence of high lignin content compared to the other longitudinal (middle, 50% and top, 90% of the merchantable height) and radial (corewood and middlewood) positions where wood were collected. Also, outerwood favour pulp production compared to middlewood and corewood, because of the high holocellulose content.

Keywords: lignin; polymers; Ricinodendron heudelotii, syringyl to guaiacyl

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsras-2017-p0023-0029


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